Tuesday, September 10, 2019

Theory of Motivation Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Theory of Motivation - Term Paper Example This paper is an attempt to understand theory of motivations. The evolution of the various theories of motivation is addressed. A specific theory is chosen and explained in detail along with explaining how a manager could use the theory in the workplace to improve the performance. Overview of Theory of Motivation Theories of motivation have evolved over the years initially only focusing on physiological needs (scientific management school of thought) to the most recent ones which focus on cognitive needs (human relations and neo human relations approach). The evolution of the theories of motivation can be best understood by analysing the thought process behind the individual theories of motivation. Scientific Management School of Thought The main idea or thought process behind the very first theories of motivation was that humans are â€Å"rational beings† motivated by physiological needs (mainly by materialistic gains). Frederick Winslow Taylor’s theory is one of the m ajor theories from this school of thought and like many other theories of its time, Taylor’s theory also assumed that employees work to satisfy economic needs, and hence money is the only motivator. This theory did not focus on emotional needs but only limited employee motivation to pay. Human Relations School of Thought Next step in the evolution of theories of motivation was the shift in focus to social needs. ... that fulfilled social needs, than money. Neo Human Relations School of Thought The neo-human relations school of thought was introduced by Abraham Maslow along with Frederick Herzberg wherein the focus now shifted to the employee’s psychological needs. Maslow in his hierarchy of needs theory proposed that employees are motivated to fulfil specific needs and these needs can be hierarchically classified into 5 groups: physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, ego and esteem needs, and self-actualization. He argued that the needs must be satisfied as per the hierarchical order. An employee will move to higher order needs only after fulfilling the lower order need. Herzberg, on the other hand, proposed a two factor theory that said that there were factors which presence would motivate the employees, and factors which absence would de-motivate the employees. This theory will be discussed in detail in the next section. Herzberg's Two Factor Theory Herzberg in his two factor t heory argued that there were two certain sets of factors that would affect the employee’s performance. He called one as the motivators which would have a direct positive impact on motivation and would result in hard work from the employees. The second one were the hygiene factors which presence would not have any impact on motivation but their absence would de-motivate the employees and result in poor performance. Some of the motivators that Herzberg listed were advancement, responsibility, recognition, achievement and work. Some of the hygiene factors that Herzberg mentioned are salary, working conditions, company policies, relationship with co-workers, etc. According to this theory, motivated and de-motivated are entirely two different concepts and not the

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